This happened to me on 2 occasions already(Harmonix VR and Unearthing Mars US) where I kept getting error messages when trying to start up the game and then after 2 or 3 "forced logouts" I managed to start it and was playing normally and hearing the trophy dings. When I went to go check the trophies I earned however it would not sync anything (error message NP-32157-8). I even played a different game right afterwards and those trophies would not sync either (different error message though NP-32091-5) This one the trophies should be there fine its just the front game is blocking anymore syncs.
I'd suggest giving theses a read as what was happening back in the early days of PS4 for some people is happening now with VR
I am sure there are other examples but Nukes suggestions seem to work.